American Airlines recently announced that they will begin service between Los Angeles (LAX) and Auckland (AKL) using their Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft. Having placed 42 firm orders for the Boeing 787 aircraft, with the right to acquire an additional 58, they have begun taking delivery since earlier this year. American already has the youngest fleet of the U.S. global network carriers, with an average aircraft age of 12.3 years.
Aviation has been around for more than a century now since the Wright Brothers invented the airplane. Still regarded as one of the most technologically advanced industries, aviation has seen the rise and fall of airlines, manufacturers, and other companies since its inception. This has led to cities developing into major aviation/aerospace clusters around the world. Here is a brief snapshot on some of them in no particular order.
What is Wow Air?
Wow Air is an ultra-low-cost carrier based out of Reykjavik in Iceland.
I am sure most of you have heard the recent news that Wow Air will be offering flights from U.S./Canada to Iceland for $99. Furthermore, they will have $149 flights from U.S./Canada to Europe via Iceland. Obviously, this sounds like a very good deal for travelers going from a major city in one continent to a major city in the other. The rest might just have to take a 2+ stop flight, which might not be so bad considering the price. But Wow Air knows how to make their passengers smile.
Network: Wow Air has been operating to and from Europe since 2011. They use a hub-and-spoke model. As of late 2014, they had a substantial reach into Europe with Dublin, Amsterdam, London-Gatwick, Copenhagen, Paris, Barcelona and more as destinations. It began operations to USA this year with Boston and Baltimore. Adding to their network, they will start flights to Montreal and Toronto in 2016. Not bad for an ultra-low-cost carrier in terms of progression.
Fleet: Wow Air operates 3 Airbus A320 aircraft to Europe and operates 2 Airbus A321 aircraft to North America. As of today, they do not have any more aircraft on order.
Schedule: A fleet of 5 aircraft is not too difficult to manage in terms of schedule optimization. Wow Air operate out of Keflavik airport close to Reykjavik and not surprisingly, slots are not a problem.
Pricing: As most ultra-low-cost airlines do, Wow Air has very low base price on all tickets which include absolutely no frills. They charge fees for luggage, seat preferences, in-flight meals and other extra benefits. The most important aspect of pricing that is noteworthy is the dynamic pricing model. The prices increase based on the proximity of the travel date.
Although the business model has had a turbulent history in North America with the demise of airlines like JetsGo and Canada 3000, discount airlines like Ryan Air, Aer Lingus, EasyJet and others have had success offering short-haul flights between destinations in Europe.
Only recently have discount carriers started expanding their reach across oceans.
Canadian carriers WestJet and Air Canada have both announced plans to offer more and cheaper flights to European destinations.
With a strong start and the required financial baseline, Wow Air has the momentum to transition from a startup to a stable business. But will they? That depends on their medium-term and long-term strategies. Their competition with respect to network and pricing will get stronger in the next 2 years. After that, it’s about value proposition and competitive product placement. At that time, it will be critical that they have consistent net profits in every quarter in order to survive.
Wow Air’s strategy, like most airlines trying to operate on an ultra-low-cost business model, will have to be centered on optimal pricing and revenue management. Their flights obviously seem attractive for travelers that like to plan their trips well in advance. But for those who need to plan their trips 2-3 months in advance, the prices will be comparable to most other (probably more direct airline fares)
As they add more routes, they will also have to keep a very close eye, and I cannot stress this enough, on scheduling. With 4-5 destinations in each continent, it is very easy to optimally align schedules to minimize travel duration for customers. But once those destinations increase, so do the routes, which lead to slot management issues and scheduling headaches.
In 2016, they will absolutely need to focus on obtaining high load factors. Why? Because that’s the only way they will come close to being profitable. Pricing models cannot be altered in 2016 after months of advertising for rock-bottom prices. Once they achieve high load factors, most airlines make the mistake of expanding and adding more routes. This is a big no-no for Wow Air because it will not only increase their debt but it will also increase their market competition. At this point, they will need to focus on customer retention, customer service and optimal pricing adjustments. After a consistent performance in 2017, they should have travelers in other cities begging and wishing for them to start operating from there. That’s when they should expand, very cautiously and only to cities where demand is on the higher side. This is the easy part. The hard part is their medium-term strategy, and that can only be well-defined once they actually have some initial numbers coming in after they begin operations.
With current momentum, largely driven by somebody’s deep pockets and endless PR initiatives, Wow Air should be successful in North America in the operational months of 2016. But the word successful is a very relative term in this case, especially since it could range from achieving high-load factors to meeting investor expectations. It is in 2017 that Wow Air and the rest of the world will realize on which side of the line they are treading on – the thin line of airline profitability for an ultra-low-cost airline.
The next time you’re thinking of throwing away a used boarding pass with a barcode on it, consider tossing the boarding pass into a document shredder instead. Two-dimensional barcodes and QR codes can hold a great deal of information, and the codes printed on airline boarding passes may allow someone to discover more about you, your future travel plans, and your frequent flyer account.
Earlier this year, I heard from a longtime KrebsOnSecurity reader named Cory who said he began to get curious about the data stored inside a boarding pass barcode after a friend put a picture of his boarding pass up on Facebook. Cory took a screen shot of the boarding pass, enlarged it, and quickly found a site online that could read the data.
An older Delta boarding pass with a bar code that does not include a frequent flyer number. Source: IATA.
“I found a website that could decode the data and instantly had lots of info about his trip,” Cory said, showing this author step-by-step exactly how he was able to find this information. ‘
“Besides his name, frequent flyer number and other [personally identifiable information], I was able to get his record locator (a.k.a. “record key” for the Lufthansa flight he was taking that day,” Cory said. “I then proceeded to Lufthansa’s website and using his last name (which was encoded in the barcode) and the record locator was able to get access to his entire account. Not only could I see this one flight, but I could see ANY future flights that were booked to his frequent flyer number from the Star Alliance.”
The access granted by Lufthansa’s site also included his friend’s phone number, and the name of the person who booked the flight. More worrisome, Cory now had the ability to view all future flights tied to that frequent flyer account, change seats for the ticketed passengers, and even cancel any future flights.
The information contained in the boarding pass could make it easier for an attacker to reset the PIN number used to secure his friend’s Star Alliance frequent flyer account. For example, that information gets you past the early process of resetting a Star Alliance account PIN at United Airline’s “forgot PIN” Web site.
After that, the site asks for the answer to a pre-selected secret question. The question in the case of Corey’s friend was “What is your Mother’s maiden name?” That information can often be gleaned by merely perusing someone’s social networking pages (e.g., does your aunt or uncle on your mom’s side have your mother’s maiden name as their last name? If so, are they friends with you on Facebook?)
The readout from the barcode on Cory’s friend’s boarding pass (redacted).
United Airlines seems to treat its customers’ frequent flyer numbers as secret access codes. For example, if you’re looking for your United Mileage Plus number, and you don’t have the original document or member card they mailed to you, good luck finding this information in your email correspondence with the company. When United does include this code in correspondence, all but the last three characters are replaced with asterisks. The same is true with United’s boarding passes. However, the full Mileage Plus number is available if you take the time to decode the barcode on a boarding pass.
Interested in learning what’s in your boarding pass barcode? Take a picture of the barcode with your phone, and upload it to this site. This blog on the same topic from several years back includes some helpful hints on how to decode the various information fields that get dumped by the barcode reader.
Finally, the standards for the boarding pass barcodes are widely available and have been for years. Check out this document (PDF) from the International Air Transport Association (IATA) for more on how the barcode standards work and have been implemented in various forms.
A recent meeting held at York University brought forward the criticality of one of the real-time systems onboard the Airbus A380 – the waste management system.
The Airbus A380 is the world’s largest passenger airline and it flies long distances. As such its human waste management systems have to handle a large volume of material.
Of course the material that ends up in the system was on the plane from the moment in took off but at the moment of takeoff the weight is distributed throughout the plane while the longer the flight continues the more of that weight gets concentrated in the waste management system.
More than that – the plane is getting lighter all the time – because it is burning fuel – so not only does the weight get shifted to a more confined region of the plane, it is relatively more important.
Hence the software on the A380 that manages the toilets is a safety critical system – and has to meet some quite exacting standards.
In Toulouse, France, three-quarters of the waste collected and sorted at the area’s Airbus sites is recycled or sent for material recovery, with the rest used for energy-generation purposes. These facilities produce as much non-hazardous refuse as a town with 3,400 households; during 2010, 500 tonnes of wood, more than 400 tonnes of paper and 1,100 tonnes of metal scrap and chips were recycled thanks to a new “sorting attitude.”
The sorting rules are the same in the offices at Airbus’ headquarters and its design/production operation: everything that can be recycled – including paper with a coloured background – must be thrown away in designated blue dustbins; paper with a white background in shredders or baskets; and waste that requires incineration in yellow dustbins.